Constantinople was the capital of the Roman Empire since May 1453. The central power Of the Roman Empire Constantinople came to an end when ottoman Turks conquered Byzantine Empire. With the conquest of Constantinople by the Sultan Mehmet II, the diminishing empire of Greek- Roman came to a decline.
Constantinople was surrounded by a series of defensive stone walls. Initially Constantine built walls that surrounded the city from all sites. The purpose of these defensive walls is to protect the central power of Roman Empire from attack from both land and sea sites, over time series of defensive wall has been made better and strong.
On 29 May 1453, the Constantinople defensive walls came to an end, after the culmination of 53-day siege which had begun on 6 April 1453
Ottomans fought under the command of 21-year-old Sultan Mehmed II and the Byzantine army was commanded by Emperor Constantine XI Palaiologos. The Mehmet Army fought with courage and significantly outnumbered the Constantinople defender. The Ottoman Army continuously attacking the city walls for 53 days.
After conquering the city, Mehmet made Constantinople new capital for Ottoman Empire.The Roman Empire ruled for 1500 years. A state which dated back to 27 BC and lasted nearly 1,500 years. The conquest of Constantinople and the fall of Byzantine was the central events of the east middle age. The army defending Constantinople was nearly small, in total, they were round about 7000, whom 2000 were foreigners. In total 50,000 people including refugees were living within Constantinople's walls.
The Ottoman had a much larger force. The Ottoman archival data shows that the Ottoman aAmy comprises 50 to 80,000 soldiers. Constantinople's defensive walls were overcome with the use of cannons and bombards. Ottoman Army had 60 cannons. Constantinople a royal capital, had been constructed defensively in the eleven centuries, the city had besieged much time but was captured once.
Facts Behind Fall
Black Death the deadliest pandemic in human history peak in Europe due to Black Death pandemic population of Constantinople has been reduced to half. Between 1346 and 1349
By 1450 The empire was worn out and had eroded to a few kilometers outside Constantinople.
It was quite difficult to let Ottoman Army directly into Constantinople. Mehmet has made strategies to breached water boundaries. Mehmed constructed the fleet, to besiege the city from the sea. It has been estimated that the fleet reaches from 110 to 430 ships.
Cannon they used against, was of much power than the expectation of defender Army. Mehmed planned to attack the Theologian Walls, the intricate series of walls and ditches protecting Constantinople from an attack from the West and the only part of the city not surrounded by water. His army encamped outside the city on 2 April 1453, the Monday after Easter. The Constantinople was surrounded by the 20 km walls, from each side. One of the strongest fortified walls in existence.
Byzantine also had cannon and weapons, but they are much smaller in front of Ottomans weapons and the flinch back in fear rebounded, tended to damage their defensive walls at that time. It was the best defensive city in Europe.
The Venetian Barbaro observed that blood flowed in the city “like rainwater in the gutters after a sudden storm” and that bodies of Turks and Christians floated in the sea “like melons along a canal”.
After conquering Constantinople, Mehmed II renamed the city and the Kostantiniyye was the Arabic version of Constantinople. Ottoman catalog of documents revealed some other historical names that have been adapted for the Istanbul were Islambol (اسلامبول, Full of Islam) or Islambul (find Islam) or Islam(b)or (old Turkic: be Islam). After the conquest of the city, the city was held new capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire in 1453.
Some Other Reason Behind the Fall
In contrast to the Byzantines, the Ottoman Turks had extended their control over virtually all the Balkans and most of Anatolia, having conquered several Byzantine cities west of Constantinople in the latter half of the 14th century. Constantinople itself became an Ottoman vassal during this period. Hungary was the primary European threat to the Ottomans on land and Venice and Genoa controlled much of the Aegean and Black seas.
Sultan Murad II laid siege to Constantinople in 1422, but he was forced to lift it to suppress a rebellion elsewhere in the empire. In 1444, he lost an important battle to a Christian alliance in the Balkans and abdicated the throne to his son, Mehmed II. However, he returned to power two years later after defeating the Christians and remained sultan until he died in 1451.